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    Monday, April 19, 2021 9:47 AM 2 months ago

    ​​How does Drum Brake work?Two-wheelers such as Scooters, commuter Bikes, three-wheelers including auto-rickshaws widely use the Drum Brake system for braking. This type of brake system is used on the rear wheels of most hatchback cars, entry-level sedans & MUVs. It is also widely used on both front & rear wheels of trucks, buses, and other commercial vehicles in combination with hydraulic/pneumatic (either air-pressure or vacuum) brake actuating systems. This system is also known as the ‘Internal Expanding Shoe Type’ brake system. This type of brake got its name from the drum structure of cylindrical-shape. Inside this drum,  the parts of the conventional drum-brake system are housed. Hence, the name.
    In the mechanical system such as in two-wheeler & an auto-rickshaw, the brake shoes are actuated by a cam, which is attached to the brake linkage & pedal. When you press the brake pedal, the cam turns. Thus, it causes the brake shoes to expand outwards and rub against the drum. The friction between the brake linings and the drum causes the drum to stop rotating; thereby stopping the wheel. When you release the brake pedal, the retracting springs bring the brake shoes back to their original position. This results in a gap between them and the drum and to again spin it freely.

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    Friday, April 16, 2021 8:47 AM 2 months ago

    ​​​​Whydo Oil (fuel) Tankers have more than one Compartment instead of carrying all the quantity in a single one?This is in order to create a baffle system. When transporting liquids, under acceleration and braking, inertia makes all of the fluid weight to act on one side of the container. Similarly, while cornering, the forces act sideways. Since such a characteristic poses as a safety risk as well as leads to quicker wear and tear of vehicle components such as the brakes, baffle system is used to break down the magnitude of forces.
    Other than that, different compartments help to deliver to a wider variety of consumers. For exampleAmay require lesser quantity of product than the full capacity of the container, and similarly withBandCand so on. Thus the container can carry the optimum load and deliver the same toA, B etc.as per their individual requirements.

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    Wednesday, April 14, 2021 3:37 PM 2 months ago

    ​​What is an Organoid and for what purpose they are used?An organoid is a miniaturized and simplified version of an organ produced in vitro in three dimensions that shows realistic micro-anatomy.Organoids are an excellent tool to study basic biological processes. Organoids enable to study how cells interact together in an organ, their interaction with their environment, how diseases affect them and the effect of drugs. In vitro culture makes this system easy to manipulate and facilitates their monitoring.

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    Monday, April 12, 2021 9:09 AM 2 months ago

    ​​What is Acoustic Levitation and How does it works?Acoustic levitation is a method for suspending matter in air against gravity using acoustic radiation pressure from high intensity sound waves. This is primarily due to the high intensity of sound required to counteract gravity.
    Acoustic levitation uses sound traveling through a fluid usually a gas to balance the force of gravity. On Earth, this can cause objects and materials to hover unsupported in the air. In space, it can hold objects steady so they don't move or drift.
    The process relies on of the properties of sound waves, especially intense sound waves.

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    Saturday, April 10, 2021 2:45 AM 2 months ago

    ​​How do pimples form?Our Skin is covered in millions of tiny little pores, that sit at your hair follicles. Pores connect the surface of your skin to an underlying gland called the Sebaceous gland. This gland produces an oily substance called sebum which is released continually, in small amounts, into the hair follicles and skin. Dead skin cells are also carried up with the sebum so they can be washed away.
    Occasionally, the sebaceous gland produces too much sebum. The overflow of oil can clog the pore. Excess oil and dead skin cells form a plug in the gland. This pore becomes clogged with sebum, oil, and possibly bacteria. These bacteria multiplies and can lead to an infection, swelling, and inflammation around the clogged pore. A white tip of pus will sometimes form at the top of the clogged pore. This creates a pimple.

    Pimples are most likely to occur during the teenage years and around menstruation(for women) because during these times hormone production changes and the sebaceous glands become overactive.

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    Wednesday, April 7, 2021 12:37 PM 2 months ago

    ​​What is Lagrange Point?Lagrange Points are positions in space where the gravitational forces of a two body system like the Sun and the Earth produce enhanced regions of attraction and repulsion. These can be used by spacecraft to reduce fuel consumption needed to remain in position.Lagrange points are named in honor of Italian-French mathematician Josephy-Louis Lagrange.
    There are five special points where a small mass can orbit in a constant pattern with two larger masses. The Lagrange Points are positions where the gravitational pull of two large masses precisely equals the centripetal force required for a small object to move with them. This mathematical problem, known as the "General Three-Body Problem" was considered by Lagrange in his prize winning paper (Essai sur le Problème des Trois Corps, 1772).
    Of the five Lagrange points, three are unstable and two are stable. The unstable Lagrange points - labeled L1, L2 and L3 - lie along the line connecting the two large masses. The stable Lagrange points - labeled L4 and L5 - form the apex of two equilateral triangles that have the large masses at their vertices. L4 leads the orbit of earth and L5 follows.

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    Monday, April 5, 2021 2:40 PM 2 months ago

    ​​What is Blue Water-Gas?A gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, made by passing steam over red-hot coke and burning with a blue flame, used especially as a source of hydrogen; also called Blue gas, Water gas. The manufacture of water gas first became an industrial proposition in 1873 with the introduction of the intermittent system by Strong and by Lowe in the United States. Strong, who aimed at manufacturing blue water gas mainly for heating purposes., utilised the heat value of the “blow” gases to superheat the steam admitted to the generator. Lowe, on the other hand, aimed at producing a gas of high illuminating value, and utilised the large quantities of combustible gas produced during the “blow” periods for heating chambers in which enriching oil was decomposed. No real progress in the manufacture of water gas in Great Britain was made until 1888,. when a plant was installed at the Leeds Forge. Since that time the utilisation of water gas has advanced rapidly, and the manufacture of water gas, both blue and carburetted, is now an important auxiliary in the production of gas for town supply.

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    Friday, April 2, 2021 6:52 AM 3 months ago

    ​​Why Rodents are most commonly used for animal testing of new medicines?From formulating new cancer drugs to testing dietary supplements, mice and rats play a critical role in developing new medical wonders. In fact, 95 percent of all lab animals are mice and rats, according to the Foundation for Biomedical Research (FBR). Scientists and researchers rely on mice and rats for several reasons.One is convenience: rodents are small, easily housed and maintained, and adapt well to new surroundings. They also reproduce quickly and have a short lifespan of two to three years, so several generations of mice can be observed in a relatively short period of time.
    Mice and rats are also relatively inexpensive and can be bought in large quantities that breed rodents specifically for research. The rodents are also generally mild-tempered and docile, making them easy for researchers to handle, although some types of mice and rats can be more difficult to restrain than others.
    Most of the mice and rats used in medical trials are inbred so that, other than sex differences, they are almost identical genetically. This helps make the results of medical trials more uniform, according to the National Human Genome Research Institute. As a minimum requirement, mice used in experiments must be of the same purebred species.
    Another reason rodents are used as models in medical testing is that their genetic, biological and behavior characteristics closely resemble those of humans, and many symptoms of human conditions can be replicated in mice and rats. "Rats and mice are mammals that share many processes with humans and are appropriate for use to answer many research questions," said Jenny Haliski, a representative for the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare.

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    Monday, March 29, 2021 5:40 PM 3 months ago

    ​​What is Ocean acidification and why is it a problem?Ocean acidification is the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Seawater is slightly basic, and ocean acidification involves a shift towards pH-neutral conditions rather than a transition to acidic conditions.The Global Problem of Ocean Acidification. Carbon dioxide (CO2) from burning fossil fuels is changing the fundamental chemistry of our oceans. CO2 reacts with sea water to form carbonic acid. As atmospheric CO2 has risen, the oceans have become 30% more acidic over the last 150 years.Carbon dioxide (CO2) from burning fossil fuels is changing the fundamental chemistry of our oceans. CO2 reacts with sea water to form carbonic acid. As atmospheric CO2 has risen, the oceans have become 30% more acidic over the last 150 years.

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    Saturday, March 27, 2021 1:25 PM 3 months ago

    ​​What is Pompe disease?Pompe disease is a genetic disorder in which complex sugar called glycogen builds up in the body’s cells. The disease results from the deficiency of an enzyme called acid alfa glucosidase (GAA), which breaks downs complex sugars in the body. This buildup occurs in organs and tissues, especially in muscles, causing them to break down. Mutations in the GAA gene, which helps break down glycogen, cause this disorder.Since this is a genetic condition, the people who get this disease inherit it from a parent. It is common, however, that neither parent shows any symptoms. The disease is rare. In the United States, only 1 person in 40,000 is affected by Pompe disease. It can affect both males and females of all ethnic groups.

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    Wednesday, March 24, 2021 2:58 AM 3 months ago

    ​​What are the effects of Caffeine on Human body?Many of us rely on a morning cup of coffee or a jolt of caffeine in the afternoon to help us get through the day. But caffeine does so much more than just keeping you awake. It’s a central nervous system stimulant that affects your body in numerous ways. Caffeine provides no nutritional value on its own. It’s tasteless, so you won’t necessarily know if it’s in your food either. Even some medications may contain caffeine without your knowledge.
    At a minimum, you may feel more energetic, but over time, too much caffeine may cause withdrawal symptoms. Caffeine acts as a central nervous system stimulant. When it reaches your brain, the most noticeable effect is alertness. Studies have also found that people who drink coffee regularly have a lower risk of developing Alzheimer’s and dementia, and cut suicide risk by 45 percent. These benefits are limited to people who drink high-octane coffee, not decaf. Extra caffeine doesn’t get stored in your body either. It’s processed in the liver and exits through your urine. Caffeine can make your blood pressure go up for a short time. If you consume too much, caffeine may cause also your muscles to twitch.

    An overdose of caffeine may cause rapid or irregular heartbeat and breathing trouble. In rare cases, caffeine overdose can result in death due to convulsions or irregular heartbeat.

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    Monday, March 22, 2021 2:33 AM 3 months ago

    ​​What is Dark Energy and Dark Matter?More is unknown than is known. We know how much dark energy there is because we know how it affects the universe's expansion. Other than that, it is a complete mystery. But it is an important mystery. It turns out that roughly 68% of the universe is dark energy. One explanation for dark energy is that it is a property of space. Albert Einstein was the first person to realize that empty space is not nothing. The first property that Einstein discovered is that it is possible for more space to come into existence. As a result, this form of energy would cause the universe to expand faster and faster. Unfortunately, no one understands why the cosmological constant should even be there.
    We are much more certain what dark matter is not than we are what it is. First, it is dark, meaning that it is not in the form of stars and planets that we see. Observations show that there is far too little visible matter in the universe to make up the 27% required by the observations. Second, it is not in the form of dark clouds of normal matter, matter made up of particles called baryons. We know this because we would be able to detect baryonic clouds by their absorption of radiation passing through them. Third, dark matter is not antimatter, because we do not see the unique gamma rays that are produced when antimatter annihilates with matter. Finally, we can rule out large galaxy-sized black holes on the basis of how many gravitational lenses we see.

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    Saturday, March 20, 2021 1:37 AM 3 months ago

    ​​What is a White hole?A white hole is a bizarre cosmic object which is intensely bright, and from which matter gushes rather than disappears. In other words, it’s the exact opposite of a black hole. But unlike black holes, there’s no consensus about whether white holes exist, or how they’d be formed.
    They are predicted by Einstein’s theory of gravity, and are most often mentioned in the context of ‘wormholes’, in which a black hole acts as the entry point to a tunnel through space and time, ending in a white hole somewhere else in the Universe. But this is deeply controversial, because Einstein’s theory predicts the existence of a so-called singularity at the centre of black holes – a state of infinite gravity which would prevent anything from passing through to the white hole on the other side.

    However, some theorists think that a combination of Einstein’s theory and quantum theory points to a new way of thinking about white holes. Instead of being the ‘exit’ from a wormhole, they may be a slow-motion replay of the formation of the original black hole.

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    Thursday, March 18, 2021 1:15 AM 3 months ago

    ​​What is Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) and How does it work?Before a man’s sperm can fertilize a woman’s egg, the head of the sperm must attach to the outside of the egg.  Once attached, the sperm pushes through the outer layer to the inside of the egg (cytoplasm), where fertilization takes place.Sometimes the sperm cannot penetrate the outer layer, for a variety of reasons.

    The egg’s outer layer may be thick or hard to penetrate or the sperm may be unable to swim. In these cases, a procedure called intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) can be done along with in vitro fertilization (IVF) to help fertilize the egg. During ICSI, a single sperm is injected directly into the cytoplasm the egg.

    There are two ways that an egg may be fertilized by IVF: traditional and ICSI. In traditional IVF, 50,000 or more swimming sperm are placed next to the egg in a laboratory dish. Fertilization occurs when one of the sperm enters into the cytoplasm of the egg. In the ICSI process, a tiny needle, called a micropipette, is used to inject a single sperm into the center of the egg. With either traditional IVF or ICSI, once fertilization occurs, the fertilized egg (now called an embryo) grows in a laboratory for 1 to 5 days before it is transferred to the woman’s uterus (womb).

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    Tuesday, March 16, 2021 7:54 AM 3 months ago

    ​​What are White Dwarf Stars?White dwarfs are dead stars. A single white dwarf contains roughly the mass of our sun in a volume no bigger than our planet. Our sun will become a white dwarf someday. White dwarfs are the hot, dense remnants of long-dead stars. They are the stellar cores left behind after a star has exhausted its fuel supply and blown its bulk of gas and dust into space. These exotic objects mark the final stage of evolution for most stars in the universe – including our sun – and light the way to a deeper understanding of cosmic history.
    White dwarfs are born when a star shuts down. A star spends most of its life in a precarious balance between gravity and outward gas pressure. The weight of a couple octillion tons of gas pressing down on the stellar core drives densities and temperatures high enough to ignite nuclear fusion: the fusing together of hydrogen nuclei to form helium. The steady release of thermonuclear energy prevents the star from collapsing on itself.

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    Sunday, March 14, 2021 3:55 AM 3 months ago

    ​​What are different stages of Sleep?There are two basic types of sleep:rapid eye movement (REM) sleepandnon-REM sleep(which has three different stages). Each is linked to specific brain waves and neuronal activity. You cycle through all stages of non-REM and REM sleep several times during a typical night, with increasingly longer, deeper REM periods occurring toward morning.Stage 1 non-REM sleepis the changeover from wakefulness to sleep. During this short period (lasting several minutes) of relatively light sleep, your heartbeat, breathing, and eye movements slow, and your muscles relax with occasional twitches. Your brain waves begin to slow from their daytime wakefulness patterns.Stage 2 non-REM sleepis a period of light sleep before you enter deeper sleep. Your heartbeat and breathing slow, and muscles relax even further. Your body temperature drops and eye movements stop. Brain wave activity slows but is marked by brief bursts of electrical activity. You spend more of your repeated sleep cycles in stage 2 sleep than in other sleep stages.Stage 3 non-REM sleepis the period of deep sleep that you need to feel refreshed in the morning. It occurs in longer periods during the first half of the night. Your heartbeat and breathing slow to their lowest levels during sleep. Your muscles are relaxed and it may be difficult to awaken you. Brain waves become even slower.REM sleepfirst occurs about 90 minutes after falling asleep. Your eyes move rapidly from side to side behind closed eyelids. Mixed frequency brain wave activity becomes closer to that seen in wakefulness. Your breathing becomes faster and irregular, and your heart rate and blood pressure increase to near waking levels. Most of your dreaming occurs during REM sleep, although some can also occur in non-REM sleep. Your arm and leg muscles become temporarily paralyzed, which prevents you from acting out your dreams. As you age, you sleep less of your time in REM sleep. Memory consolidation most likely requires both non-REM and REM sleep.

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    Friday, March 12, 2021 7:07 AM 3 months ago

    ​​Why do People drool in their sleep?It may seem a little embarrassing: you wake up and your pillow is drenched in slobber. After you wipe the spit at the corners of your mouth, you might wonder: Why do we drool in our sleep?
    The body normally produces more than 1 liter of saliva per day. It is produced by salivary glands and is usually swallowed and re-circulated via the bloodstream. Drooling occurs when the saliva collects within the mouth and rather than being swallowed, it drips or runs out past the lips. Why might this occur more at night?

    The muscles of the body relax during sleep, especially during REM sleep, and it is possible for your mouth to fall open at this time. One of the biggest reasons your mouth could come open at night is because you can’t breathe well through your nose. We are meant to breathe through our nose, but if congestion is present, our default option is to breathe through the mouth. If this occurs in sleep, saliva may drool onto our pillow.

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    Wednesday, March 10, 2021 2:35 AM 3 months ago

    ​​What is Monorail and How does it work?A monorail is a rail-based transportation system based on a single rail, which acts as its sole support and its guideway. The term is also used variously to describe the beam of the system, or the vehicles traveling on such a beam or track. Monorails have been around since the 1800s, but only really came to public attention in the 1950s when Walt Disney installed one in his new theme park: Disneyland, California.
    Modern monorails are based on a single solid beam that supports and guides the train; the carriages are either suspended beneath the track, or sit on top, with their wheels straddling electricity, which is carried on a ‘third rail’ either within, or connected to, the main beam. Conductive shoes on the carriages then transmit the current to the train. The straddle-beam design is the most widely used. The carriages have pneumatic rubber tyres, which drive along the top of an ‘I’-shaped beam.

    In fact, monorails are one of the safest forms of transport. The elevated track minimises interaction with traffic and pedestrians, eliminating the need for crossings, and derailment is very rare. They are energy efficient too and their rubber tyres produce the beam. They are usually powered by simple inversion of the straddle monorail, much less noise pollution than the metal wheels of conventional trains.

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    Tuesday, March 9, 2021 11:16 AM 3 months ago

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